Archive for the ‘Image Processing’ Category

Protecting and Tracking Your Images Online

Sunday, November 3rd, 2013

By Adrian Klein

I touched on this topic in early 2012 on this blog with the post New Photography Copyright Laws – Where Do You Stand when SOPA and PIPA were the buzz acronyms making their way through the online world. Although that buzz died down the subject of image copyright continues to be a topic that brings many passionate opinions. The vast majority of us share our work online for good or for bad. Frankly I am not sure how you would maximize your photo business starting out today without an online presence including social media.  Meaning we need to be taking proactive measures to protecting  our work even though the reality is if you want 100% assurance it’s never used without your knowledge you simply cannot post it online.

On this topic a few weeks back I decided to do a little searching with tools at my disposal. Most links took me to social media sites where people marked my work as a favorite or shared it with their friends or otherwise benign uses. Whether you agree with me or not I am not going to get wrapped up in every little usage like some folks do, it’s simply not worth my time. I am primarily concerned with businesses that would be using it in way that can help with their profit or cause (using on website, in publication, etc). That said it did not take too much time to uncover uses of my work that I did not agree with and was unaware of.

Searching Online

GoogleImages and TinEye

Looking for my images online I used the two most common solutions, Google Images and  TinEye. They seem to do pretty well and comparing the two I found more links with my work on Google Images than TinEye . Likely you already know of these yet if have not used them before and you have images posted online it’s worth some time to see if what they come back with your images. I do question the relevance of Google’s “Visually Similar Images” search returns. Often it was similar in colors but nothing more.

I then reached out to the offenders found during my searches and infringing uses were removed promptly. In one case I had good dialogue with a office manager that seemed to genuinely lack an understanding on which images are okay or not okay to use online. Regardless if the company is playing ignorant or not, they are paying my invoice for what I feel is a small sum for illegal use of my image by a business.

Register Images

Regardless of what I talk about in the below sections one step is register your work with the US Copyright Office (for those of you reading this in the United States). This is the legal way to show you as the copyright owner of the photographs/images. Yes I know the moment an image is captured by a photographer it’s copyright is owned by that person yet legally that is not enough for most lawyers to take a case.  There is always the chance images can be used illegally before you submit if you post through social media,blogs or websites frequently and submit infrequently to the copyright office. However the cost is cheap ($35) plus it’s easy to do, and it could help you down the road. I admit to falling behind on this and the images I had issues with were more recent and I had not registered them. Updated submission is complete and in the mail.

Digital Watermarking


Another solution is applying a digital watermark to an image, in essence a fingerprint. Then a system crawls the web like a spider to return where your image is found (sounds like someone talking late 90’s world wide web speak). There are a number of solutions out there for putting “invisibile” watermarks on images yet for this post I will cover Digimarc for Images (DFI) by Digimarc. I put invisible in quotes since it’s not completely invisible in all cases which I get into detail below. I went with Digimarc for a number of reasons including how long they have been a leader in this space.

As a Photoshop user (most reading this are) you will already see Digmarc as an option under Filters. The thing is that unless you subscribe to the service the tracking data associated to the watermark cannot be modified and you cannot access their search database online. Both pretty important pieces. In order to get full functionality and access to their search database you need to signup.

For the majority of us posting quality looking web sized images online is important. If it’s too soft or too sharp or too pixaleted or other image degradation issues it’s not very inviting to potential viewers. That is why it’s important to pay close attention when applying the watermark.

Digmarc has videos and FAQs to help but here my steps to add:

1)    Complete all your normal processing to the point you are ready to save for web (the digital watermark should be your last step).
2)    In Photoshop go to Filter –> Digimarc –> Embed Watermark
3)    Here choose what settings you want (if any) besides your Digimarc ID and the strength of the watermark. I normally choose strength 3 (default)
4)    Click okay and the watermark is applied to the image

Here is where you need to decide whether to make additional changes to the file before saving it. Personally there places on certain images where it’s too noticeable for my liking (I wish they could truly make it invisible).  The problem areas I notice most is clear skies and dark portions of an image. I don’t like seeing it, I paint out the watermark in these spots and leave it on the rest. After doing this I do the following to test the strength of the watermark.

1)    Go to Filter –> Digimarc –> Read Watermark
2)    Ideally it does not erase very much leaving strength in medium to high range. If the strength moves to low then you need to decide what is more important, the watermark strength or presentation.

Here are examples of images where you can clearly see the difference with and without watermark and other images where is almost no difference to the eye.

AlvordDesert-092713_0234-PC Blog

AlvordDesert-092713_0191-PC Blog

So how is Digimarc panning out for me? That is a good question I can answer down the road. I just started using the service and they say it takes at least a month before a user can potentially start seeing results through their online reporting tool. Additionally most of my work does not have DFI watermarking, meaning images already out there won’t found. I figure if they can report even a small number of unknown uses that other free tools are not picking up it’s worth the reasonable subscription price.

Use Discount Code = Cascadia20 to get 20% off a Digimarc subscription. If you have questions once you are signed up their customer service is great. I have had several questions and all were answered in significant detail within a couple business days.

Beyond using digital watermarking there are two other things I feel everyone should continue to do. Although neither of these will stop anyone from using your image they help keep honest people honest. It’s like locking the doors to your car.

1)    Metadata: Ensure you have correct copyright and contact info in the metadata of your file. I have my name, website and copyright along with title, description and keywords.
2)    Visible Watermark: Although the watermark was Photoshopped or cropped in cases I discovered that led me to this blog post, I still believe a relatively non-intrusive watermark of your name or company is beneficial.

Do you agree we should proactively take steps to protect or track our images before posting online? Have you cancelled your social media accounts over fears of illegal usage? What are your experiences and thoughts on this subject?

Shooting Wildflowers In Summer Season – Kevin McNeal

Friday, October 18th, 2013
Mt Rainier From Tipsoo Lake

Mt Rainier From Tipsoo Lake

One of the most challenging aspects of nature photography is shooting the subject of wildflowers successfully. There are many aspects to learn and nothing is more rewarding when the outcome is positive. I have made many mistakes over the past few years shooting wildflowers and I hope to pass some of this wisdom down to other photographers. Having the right tools in your camera bag is essential to capturing impact in your images. The first goal when shooting wildflowers is to capture vibrancy and color in the wildflowers. When we look at images of wildflowers the first thing that captures our attention about these images is the color that seems to “pop “off the page. You especially want to have a lot of impact in the foreground to grab your viewer’s attention.

Morning LIght On Mt St Helens

Morning LIght On Mt St Helens

Therefore producing wildflower images that contain good color rendition and vibrancy are vital to the overall goal. To make sure that you are able to reproduce the colors you need a filter that can realistically take advantage of the bold colors and then allow it to come through in the image. The filter I turn to in all my wildflower images is the LB ColorCombo Polarizer. The filter offers two successful qualities in an image that boost impact. The first aspect in the filter is the color intensifier so that images taken with the filter will consist of vibrant and bold colors. In many nature scenes this might not be vital but when shooting wildflowers this is critical.

Lupine Surround Pond In The Rockies

Lupine Surround Pond In The Rockies

The essential component to shooting flowers is color. While improving color saturation it also renders the image with a natural color balance so that what you see is what you get. I have tried other filters in the past and found I was getting unusual colorcasts when I used their filters. Not only did I receive a colorcast with other filters but often the colors were also muted. With the Singh-Ray LB ColorCombo the results are excellent when it comes to reproducing accurate results. The second component contained within the LB ColorCombo that gives it a huge advantage over other similar filters is that it contains a warming polarizer within the same filter. In the past you would have to stack filters to get these same results. Shooting wildflowers there is always a certain mood you are looking to convey; I will always lean towards a warmer tone in the image as this really attracts more viewers to your image then cooler tones. So having a warmer within the polarizer I can really take advantage of this as well as gets the best of the warmer tones in the image like the reds and yellows. Thus, the color is accentuated yet remains natural in its overall tone.

Wildflower Meadow In The Grand Teton National Park - Wyoming

Wildflower Meadow In The Grand Teton National Park – Wyoming

One of the arguments I often hear is that I can recapture that color in RAW images so why is it necessary to have this filter. And it always comes back to the notion that it is vital to render the image as close as possible to how the scene was originally. You can add saturation and vibrancy later in post processing but the side effect to that is that you are pulling pixels from the image and thus destroying the image. This is especially prevalent in the shadow areas of an image. The effects become very visible when enlarging an image for larger print. When it comes to reproducing colors through RAW the images maintain their vibrancy without really having to increase the saturation past higher levels.

Mazama Ridge Sunset On Mt RainierMazama Ridge Sunset On Mt Rainier

Mazama Ridge Sunset On Mt Rainier

Another advantage I have noticed with the LB ColorCombo polarizer is the image rendered from the filter remains sharp throughout. With other filters I have noticed a dramatic reduction in quality pertaining to sharpness. This is critical when shooting something in the foreground close to the lens. Whenever shooting wildflowers there is always a fine balance between ISO and shutter speed. In the past I have had to shoot without a filter to capture the flowers without movement. The use of other filters has decreased the shutter speed and not allowed me to capture sharpness and detail in the foreground flowers. Shooting wildflowers with success is much easier now with the newer LB ColorCombo being one stop faster combined with newer cameras having the ability to shoot higher ISO’s with fewer noise pixels.
With the advantages of clarity, color rendition, and color saturation being natural and true to the subject when shooting wildflowers the use of the LB ColorCombo is a definite asset in your arsenal of photography tools.

Sunset In Van Trump Park Mt Rainier

Sunset In Van Trump Park Mt Rainier

Use Lightroom or Camera Raw to Create Natural 32 bit HDR Images by Sean Bagshaw

Friday, August 30th, 2013


In this video tutorial I share a technique for quickly and easily creating natural looking 32 bit extended dynamic range images using Lightroom or Adobe Camera Raw and Photoshop. To be able to perform this technique you will need Lightroom version 4.1 or newer and Photoshop CS6 or newer. (Correction: In the video I state that ACR in CS5 will support 32-bit tiff files. It turns out that ACR version 7 is required to edit 32-bit files and that is only supported in CS6.)

It is common in outdoor photography to be confronted with scenes that have a degree of contrast that is too extreme for the camera to accurately capture in a single exposure. Raw files from the latest DSLR cameras contain more dynamic range than ever before, making it possible to recover an amazing amount of highlight and shadow detail from a single exposure, but there are still dynamic range limitations and pushing a single exposure too far can create problems with noise, particularly in the dark areas.

Most often I use advanced layer masking techniques in Photoshop to manually blend exposures for the greatest degree of control, quality and creative flexibility, but such techniques take a lot of practice to perfect. You might be interested to know that Lightroom and Adobe Camera Raw offer a quick and easy to learn way to combine exposures to create extended dynamic range images without the look and quality issues that you can run into with HDR tone mapping software. For a full explanation check out the video.

Update: It is also worth noting that if you own Photomatix by HDRsoft, it can be used instead of Adobe HDRPro to generate 32-bit blended tif files. These will also give you 20 stops of dynamic range to work with in LR or Camera Raw. Some people have shared with me that they think Photomatix does an even better job than HDRPro.  If you have LR 4.1 and an up to date version of Photomatix you are also good to go.

For my complete selection of Photoshop video tutorials including my workflow, other methods for extending dynamic rante and luminosity mask techniques visit

Overlay Dodge and Soft Light Burn Technique by Sean Bagshaw

Saturday, June 8th, 2013

Dodging and burning to creatively lighten and darken areas within a photo is a technique essentially as old as photography itself. In the digital darkroom we now have many ways in which we can make dodging and burning types of adjustments.


Before making creative adjustments.


After creative adjustments including dodging and burning to creatively darken and lighten specific areas within the image.

Many years ago I learned the Photoshop technique of dodging and burning areas of an image by painting with white (to lighten) and black (to darken) using a blended 50% gray layer. In a previous PhotoCascadia article I demonstrated the 50% gray layer technique and why it is a better option than using the Dodge and Burn tools within Photoshop. That article gives a great lead in to the techniques in this article. In this article I will expand on the 50% gray dodge/burn technique and share a simple way to get even more control with this type of adjustment.

For some time I have known that dodging and burning on a 50% gray layer set to the Overlay blending mode would give results that differ from dodging and burning on a 50% gray layer set to the Soft Light blending mode. I would choose one or the other depending on what looked better. More recently I realized that one blending mode is often more suited to dodging and the other is often more suited to burning. By separating my dodging and burning on to two different layers I can get the best results from each of the two blending modes and have the greatest control over my dodging and burning.

Both the Soft Light and Overlay blending modes lighten light tones and darken dark tones while blending the 50% mid-tone transparently. That’s why a 50% gray layer becomes invisible when it is set to Overlay or Soft Light. However, Soft Light and Overlay shift the dark and light tones differently.

The Soft Light blending mode shifts the tones towards the lights and the darks less aggressively than the Overlay blending mode. Lightening and darkening with the Soft Light mode will create a lower contrast dodge and burn, and using the Overlay blending mode will create a higher contrast dodge and burn.

Basic Gradiant

Normal Mode

Soft Light 2

Soft Light Mode – Moderate tonal shift from the mid-tones to the darks and lights.


Overlay Mode – More aggressive tonal shift from the mid-tones to the darks and lights.

Depending on your intentions and the characteristics of the tones in the image it is fine to dodge or burn with either blending mode.

However, I have found that in many cases that dodging (painting white) on a 50% gray Overlay layer lightens while maintaining good contrast in the lightened areas. Painting white on a 50% gray Soft Light layer tends to lighten with a loss of contrast giving a very washed out or faded effect.

Similarly, I have found that most often I like the effect of painting black on a 50% gray Soft Light layer to darken. This does a good job of darkening mid-tones while preserving some of the highlights and not over darkening the shadows. Painting black on a 50% gray Overlay layer tends to darken too aggressively resulting in a dull, flat, over darkened effect.

It is quite challenging to explain or visualize these concepts in writing so I produced the following short video tutorial to take you through the steps of setting up the separate dodge/burn layers and show how to use them. Make sure to watch the video at the highest resolution (720p).  I think you will find this dodge/burn technique will be a great addition to your workflow.

Finally, I’ll mention that this Overlay/Dodge and Soft Light/Burn technique can also be used in combination with Tony Kuyper’s Luminosity Painting technique. I briefly demonstrate Luminosity Painting at the end of the video in my previous dodge and burn article. For those who have The Complete Guide to Luminosity Masks videos you can also find a complete tutorial on this technique in segment #31 Localized Adjustments – Luminosity Painting.

For more image developing instruction you can visit If you have comments or questions about this topic make sure to join the discussion in the comments section below.


Thursday, May 30th, 2013

by Zack Schnepf

The number one question I got after I produced my tonality control video is this.  How do you sharpen, and when?  The simple answer is, I don’t sharpen until I’m going to present the image in one medium or another. That means I don’t sharpen at all when I export from Lightroom either; this is my own preference. I find that the more times you sharpen an image the more image degradation you get. If I’m presenting on the web, or on screen, I use the techniques detailed in an older video log.  This explains why our images look so sharp online. You can view it here:

If I’m presenting the image in print, I use a separate workflow.  I’ve tried several advanced sharpening techniques, plugins, and programs specifically designed for sharpening, but I still prefer to keep it simple and use the tools built in Photoshop.  In this video tutorial I walk you through my simple workflow for sharpening for print.

The image I used for this video is 4 exposures blended together using my advanced Photoshop tonality control and multiple exposure blending techniques. I produced a video detailing these techniques, it’s available here:
I will be releasing a new video detailing many more advanced techniques later this year.

The Advantages of Luminosity Masks by Sean Bagshaw

Tuesday, April 16th, 2013

I recently produced a series of Photoshop video tutorials called The Complete Guide to Luminosity Masks to help people learn how to use Luminosity Masks in their image developing repertoire. Luminosity Masks are very powerful tools for making refined image adjustments in Photoshop. Their use in landscape and nature photography was originally developed and established by my friend and colleague, Tony Kuyper, with whom I collaborated on the videos. Tony’s Luminosity Masking techniques revolutionized the way photographers like myself, as well as all the members of Photo Cascadia, are able to make adjustments to our images within Photoshop.

If you are familiar with Tony’s work, his written tutorials or his Photoshop actions, then you already have at least basic knowledge of Luminosity Masks. For those just being introduced to Luminosity Masks I thought it would be helpful if I briefly explained what they are and what they can be used for.

Luminosity Masks are actually just one of many ways to create layer masks in Photoshop. Like other types of masks, they can be added to any pixel layer or adjustment layer to control where and to what extent an adjustment or filter will be applied to an image. For example, let’s say I’d like to use a mask to constrain a darkening adjustment only to the sky in this image.

Unadjusted Image

Unadjusted Image

For the purpose of comparison let’s consider a very simple way to generate a mask; painting on a mask with a white or black brush. White areas of a mask will reveal any adjustments made on the layer, black areas will conceal any adjustments made on the layer and shades of gray will partially reveal adjustments depending on how dark the shade of gray is. In the mask below I have painted the landscape black and left the sky white so that the effects of a darkening Levels adjustment will only be revealed in the sky. By using a soft brush I was able to feather the boundaries of the adjustment.

Hand Painted Mask

Hand Painted Mask

Depending on the situation, painting a mask by hand can be challenging and often leaves dark or light halos along edges.

Adjustment Through The Painted Mask

Adjustment Through The Painted Mask

In the next example I created a more precise but non-feathered selection of the sky using the quick selection tool and then created a Levels Adjustment Layer with the selection active. The Levels Adjustment Layer is generated with a mask that automatically reflects my sky selection. This mask constrains the adjustment to the sky like the first mask, but with a very abrupt edge.

Sky Selection Mask

Sky Quick Selection Mask

Depending on how detailed the edges are and how much feathering is needed to make transition zones look natural, this may or may not be the right technique.

Adjustment Through the Quick Selection Mask

Adjustment Through the Quick Selection Mask

There are many instances when a hand painted mask, or simple selection mask, or any number of other types of masks might be the right tool for guiding an adjustment. But as seen in the previous examples they can leave light or dark halos across boundaries or the abruptness of the transition zone does not look natural.

While they aren’t the perfect and single answer to all masking situations, Luminosity Masks can often do a much better job of guiding adjustments in a way that is perfectly feathered into the image and natural in appearance. The example below shows what a Luminosity Mask targeted toward the luminosity values of the sky looks like. Because it is created from the actual luminosity values of each pixel in the image it matches the image pixel for pixel and allows the adjustment to feather itself within the image seamlessly.

Luminosity Mask

Luminosity Mask

Adjustment Through the Luminosity Mask

Adjustment Through the Luminosity Mask

So, where do Luminosity Masks come from? The luminosity values of the color channels in the Channels Panel in Photoshop are used to create luminosity based selections, and these selections can in turn be used to generate Luminosity Masks. In this way Luminosity Masks are just like other methods of creating selections and masks, which means they can be used to guide any type of adjustment or filter, not just Levels or Curves adjustments. Luminosity Masks are simply far more detailed than other masking options. They are also completely self feathering and they allow the user to target different regions of an image based on luminosity or tonal values. Learning to make and use Luminosity Masks takes time and practice. The written tutorials on Tony Kuyper’s website go into great detail on how how to make and use them. Tony has also developed Photoshop actions that streamline the process of mask creation to just a few simple clicks. This video demonstrates how (make sure to view at 720pHD).

Since Tony first published his Luminosity Mask techniques back in 2006 he regularly receives requests for video instruction to support his written tutorials and actions. After he and I discussed the idea for a year or more, we decided to collaborate on a video series, with me writing, recording and producing videos to directly support Tony’s techniques and actions and with Tony consulting and contributing his vast knowledge.

The video segments from The Complete Guide to Luminosity Masks below offer more of an introduction to Luminosity Masks and how I teach them in the video series   Both Tony and I are also happy to answer questions. You can leave me a comment in the comments section below or email me at [email protected]. Tony can be reached through his website,


Tumalo Mountain – Winter Backpacking Trip

Monday, April 1st, 2013

By Adrian Klein

Zack did a post on his successful trip in this same area earlier this winter yet I thought I would share mine since it was a little different experience and imagery. I had been a handful of times over the last half dozen years with little success. The snow never stopped or overcast texture-less skies or little to no fresh snow. They were fun day or overnight trips yet little I was excited about photography wise. Seeing that my fellow Photo Cascadia team members Zack and Sean had success in this region I figured maybe I was due this year too. With a few days open and conditions looking promising a good friend of mine and I headed to Central Oregon.

You certainly can stay in warm cozy lodging in Bend to make a day trip out of it yet can mean a morning earlier than the baker at the local doughnut shop to drive and then snowshoe in for sunrise. We wanted more time up there; we opted for snow camping. Driving up to the bottom of the mountain the weather was storming away with a good dose of blowing snow and temps in the low 20’s without the wind chill (forecast said overnight low -3 for wind-chill). Fortunately for us the wind ceased during the night, more on that later.

We loaded up our packs, bundled up and snowshoed up 1000 ft and about 1.5 miles. It was not very far but always feels farther than it is in bad weather, uphill and full pack. After getting pretty close to the top of Tumalo Mountain we came down a little lower where the snow was not blowing as intensely (I learned that lesson on prior overnight trip in the area). After finding a nice spot to call home for the night we dropped the packs and started digging out a flat spot for our tent.

If you have never done this it’s akin to making mini crop circles with the circle stomping to get the ground as flat as possible. With this much fresh snow, warm sleeping bag and shelter from the wind it’s about as comfy as sleeping on my bed at home. Those that have never snow camped assume you must be cold. I certainly do my best to avoid that. It reminds me of one of my favorite quotes:

“There is no such thing as bad weather, only inappropriate clothing”  - Sir Ranulph Fiennes

Our sheltered camping spot for the night.

Our sheltered camping spot for the night.

After we had camp all setup and plenty of daylight to burn we decided to make a jaunt for the top in hopes the weather would break. Before we even got to the top we turned around. The wind was relentless. Mix that with the occasional falling snow and it was damn near whiteout conditions. On the way back to camp I saw the scene below. I was really drawn to it with the open empty minimalist feeling in this white abyss. I gave it a slight blue tint to reflect the ice cold windy conditions.

Into The White - Snow blows past me and quickly fills our tracks as I take a moment to capture this scene.

Snow blows past and quickly fills our tracks as I take a moment to capture this scene.

After arriving back at camp we made dinner our gourmet meal, a la freeze dried food in a bag and called it a night early since we would be rising by 5:00 am as it was. As a side note the late sunrise is one thing I love about winter. If it was summer and a hike to be somewhere for sunrise, sleeping until 5am is something you can only dream. Anyway, in the middle of the night I woke up to the sound of nothing, it was tranquil to say the least. I decided to get out for a peek and of course Mother Nature was calling. The wind had died to a gentle breeze that could hardly be felt, the cloud filled sky now had peep holes to the stars and the almost full moon was making occasional appearances as well. These trees towering over me felt like giant gentle friendly ghosts. It was an amazing feeling and reminder of the payoff being right where I was standing after a large storm was heading for the exit.

We woke up shortly before 5, strapped on our gear and headed for the top of Tumalo Mountain. Still cold as could be yet the wind was close to dead and the skies mostly clear. We could see the first glimpse of daylight as we made our way laying fresh tracks through at times fairly deep snow. Just before sunrise we arrived at the top. I expected the wind to be howling yet much to our delight it was light breezes with periods of calm. Fresh snow, calm winds and a luxury view for sunrise. Does it get much better? I doubt it.

We spent about an hour and a half on the summit capturing the following the scenes.


The sunrise alpenglow lights up the top of Mount Bachelor on a cold winter morning.

The sunrise alpenglow lights up the top of Mount Bachelor on a cold winter morning.

The sun making it's presence known to the the summit snow encrusted trees.

The sun making it’s presence known to the the summit snow encrusted trees.

The trees caked thick with snow and ice as the sun rises and beams right through.

The trees caked thick with snow and ice on the summit as the sun rises and beams through the branches for an amazingly surreal scene.

Looking out into Three Sisters Wilderness South Sister and Broken top peaks floating in and out of the clouds never fully appearing until much later in the morning. I chose B&W for this scene because of the drama wit the lights and clouds.

Looking out into Three Sisters Wilderness South Sister and Broken top peaks floating in and out of the clouds never fully appearing until much later in the morning.
I chose B&W for this scene because of the drama with the shadows/highlights, night cloud layers and lack of color in the scene.

If you plan to hike and camp into Tumalo Mountain or other near by wilderness in winter double check the snow removal days before you go. I believe there are one or two nights during the week that you cannot park your car overnight at Dutchman Flats parking lot because they need it open for snow removal. Should this be on your short list of upcoming destinations a quick Google search and you should find many plenty of info how to get to Tumalo Mountain in either winter or summer.

Previsualization, Possibly the Most Important Thing I do in Photography

Friday, March 15th, 2013

by Zack Schnepf

Previsualization is one of, if not the most important thing I do in photography and in art in general.  It’s also one of the hardest things to teach.  I use previsualization in the field and in post processing to envision what I want the final image to look like.  This is extremely important and something that you learn over time.  Previsualization is an abstract concept, it can be hard to grasp, and takes time to develop.   So what is previsualization and how do you use it to improve your photography?

When I’m in the field looking at the scene, light, atmospheric conditions, and trying to come up with a visually striking composition; I’m previsualizing and building an idea of an image in my head.  This process can be painstaking, or it can be unconscious.  Most of the time it takes a lot of mental energy.  If I’m doing it well, it’s kind of a Zen consciousness, I’m thinking like a painter imagining what I want the final image to look like.  This allows me to adjust my composition and helps me figure out if I need to use multiple exposures or an advanced capture technique to create a certain look.

For example, when I was capturing Second Beach Sunset I was with David Cobb.  Both of us were previsualizing, trying to figure out where the sun would go down and how best to use it with the other compositional elements to compliment the conditions.  We found this pool and I constructed a mental image of what I wanted the final image to look like.  This is an ever evolving process and as the sun was setting I moved a bit to help capture my previsualized mental image.  I also knew it was a very dynamic scene so I adjusted how many individual exposures I would need to get all the raw data I needed in Photoshop.  This is an important part of the process I try to teach students in the field.  When I’m in the field, I’m thinking many steps ahead, I’m already imagining what I will need in Photoshop to create the vision I have in my head.  That can be how many exposures I need, as well as how each exposure should look to make my job easier when I get into Lightroom and Photoshop.  Sometimes it means removing distracting objects in the frame, or increasing my shutter speed for a particular exposure to freeze motion of a foreground element.  All of this is part of the previsualization process for me.

Second Beach Sunset

Second Beach Sunset

I also use previsualization when I’m processing.  When I’m in Lightroom evaluating the raw data I have.  I’m previsualizing what I want the final image to look like.  This gives me a direction to move toward.  From there, I figure out which techniques I’ll use in Lightroom and Photoshop to create my final image.  Previsualization is what drives my creative process.  It holds the entire workflow together for me and provides direction from capture, through processing, to print.

I go into detail on how I use this mental technique in my Tonality Control Video, it’s available here:

To see a list of field workshops I’m offering this year click here: 2013 Workshops

How To Remove Noise In Camera Raw 7.0 by Kevin McNeal

Wednesday, March 6th, 2013


Mount Rundle Sunrise After Noise Removal In Camera Raw 7.0

Mount Rundle Sunrise After Noise Removal In Camera Raw 7.0


Recently I revisited some older images from the past few years. I am sure we all have some images in our past that we wish we could have done something different. For me, many of my images were underexposed to get detail in the sky we no regard for the foreground. Things have changed significantly with my post processing and advancements in Photoshop and Camera RAW. So much has happened behind the scenes in terms of the engine and workings in Camera Raw in the last few years. In this article I am going to try to explain how I now go about removing noise from my images.

To begin with I am using Adobe Photoshop CS6 and Camera Raw 7.0. To find out what version of Camera Raw you are using check the top of the Camera Raw box where it tells you as well as the camera model. To apply the best results in the noise removal sliders you must be using the latest version 7.0. As previously mentioned, with every new Camera Raw and Photoshop comes a remarkably improved feature that makes rescuing older images possible. Without a doubt one of those features that has changes my post processing methods is the noise removal within the actual Camera Raw. Let me start off my mentioning the fact that I never throw away my images and keep the original raw images in a separate folder. I name this folder so I never lost the originals. With so much happening in terms of digital processing it is smart to keep the original files to revisit later. We have no idea of the potential of where digital processing might lead to in the future. For the very reason it is critical to me to keep everything I shoot. Many photographers have different methods and will disagree with this but this is what works for me. There are as many right and wrong answers in how to do thing. It has to be very confusing for someone just beginning digital photography. I have always encouraged my students to do what works best for them and to stay consistent with the process.

The biggest improvement in Camera Raw for me is the improved features of Noise Removal. Previous to the latest Camera Raw I used different third party noise removal programs like Noise Ninja, Neat Image, and Topaz just to name a few. They all have done a good job in the past with certain images but others not so much. So with latest Camera Raw I was curious to see the changes in the new and improved Noise Removal. When opening up older files in the new version of Camera Raw, there is a highlighted exclamation point in the bottom right corner.

                             Important click on the image to see the full image


    The exclamation point is highlighted with a red box

The exclamation point is highlighted with a red box



If you look to the right at the sliders before updating the image you will see different options. These are the older sliders that did not do such a good job of noise removal as seen in the image. The image is especially evident in the sky.



Noise In Image Before Updating Image To Camera Raw 7.0

Noise In Image Before Updating Image To Camera Raw 7.0



This is Camera Raw asking you whether you would like to update the older file with the new advancements. Right away after clicking on this update button you will see a huge improvement. The noise in the sky has almost been all removed by just updating the image.



Noise After Image Is Updated In Camera Raw 7.0

Noise After Image Is Updated In Camera Raw 7.0



Without having to do any adjustments you will see an immediate result in tonal contrast, better colors, and most importantly a massive improvement in the noise removal before even having to do any adjustments. I will start with the process of how I implemented these changes into my post processing workflow.


The Red Box Is Where The Noise Reduction Sliders Can Be Accessed

The Red Box Is Where The Noise Reduction Sliders Can Be Accessed




A Closer Look At The Red Box To Locate The Noise Reduction Slider

A Closer Look At The Red Box To Locate The Noise Reduction Slider


The Details Tab That Includes The New Improvement of Noise Removal and Sharpening

The Details Tab That Includes The New Improvement
of Noise Removal and Sharpening






As you can see from the Details Tab in the previous example the Noise Reduction works in conjunction with the Sharpening. These two are meant to work together and should be applied by adjusting both to get the best results. I always start with the Noise Reduction Sliders and get a good baseline of minimal noise before adjusting the sharpening sliders. I will talk how I go about sharpening images in a future blog. Each image is different when it comes to noise so there are no default settings that I could tell you to do, as each image would have to be evaluated separately.
Taking a closer look at the noise removal sliders we have two main categories; Luminance Noise and Color Noise. Luminance Noise is the digital equivalent of film grain. In the example below you can see the noise in the sky where the pixels of variation in the sky are evident. The image below that shows an example of color noise where this is most apparent in the most underexposed areas of the image. This is especially evident in the dark trees and water.



An Example Of Luminance Noise

An Example Of Luminance Noise


An Example Of Color Noise

An Example Of Color Noise




Once you can better identify the difference between the two then it becomes easier to use the sliders to your benefit. In most cases you will find both types of noise in the image and must be dealt with according to the appropriate slider. Before I adjust the sliders I always zoom in to 100% magnification or more to really zoom in on the noise. I always look at the shadows within the image and this is where you find most of your noise especially with underexposed images. Never adjust the sliders at less than 100% magnification. Start moving the sliders around until noise is reduced but the quality of the image is not degraded. I have found in most examples it is important to be conservative with adjustments and to leave a slight amount of noise rather then overdoing it and getting soft or blurry results. The reason you want to be careful of using too much noise removal is that image can become texture less and take on painterly characteristics. This gets away from the image looking like a photographic image. The following example shows how the water and trees have taken on a blurry look and almost distorted look. The results don’t look natural.




An Image With Too Much Noise Removed - The Water And Trees Are Blurred

An Image With Too Much Noise Removed – The Water And Trees Are Blurred


In the example above restraint has been shown so that a small amount of noise remains but the details in the trees and especially the water have are still intact. Remember that textures are an important aspect of a good photograph and really enhance impact and depth in the image. The noise removal tools in Camera Raw do a great job of removing noise even in higher settings. The important elements of an image such as saturation, sharpness, and hue variety are not harmed.




The image here has detail still in the water and trees

The image here has detail still in the water and trees


Once you are happy with the results of the noise removal zoom back out to reevaluate the results. This is an important step in the process. In previous version of Camera Raw with the noise removal sliders there was only the option of a luminance and color slider, which in most cases really flattened the image due to the lost detail in the image.


With Adobe Photoshop and more specifically Camera Raw 7.0 the addition of the sliders that reintroduce detail and contrast have been added. Now with the Luminance Detail and Luminance Contrast sliders as well as the Color detail slider we get excellent results.




Luminance Detail And Contrast Sliders

Luminance Detail And Contrast Sliders


Color Detail Sliders

Color Detail Sliders



This is the reason why I now use the noise removal sliders in Camera Raw 7.0 as my main tool for removing noise. I start with the Luminance slider and remove the noise to a satisfactory level then use the Luminance Detail and Luminance Contrast to bring back details into the image. I then deal with the color slider separately and then use the color detail slider to bring back detail in the areas lost to the color slider. As you can see in the example below the before image has the tree outline morphed and blurry almost like a painting. The after image brings back all the details to the edges of the tree while still keeping the noise removed from the sky.





Before-  Luminance And Color Detail Sliders Were Added

Before- Luminance And Color Detail Sliders Were Added



After-Luminance And Color Detail Sliders Added

After-Luminance And Color Detail Sliders Added


Noise is always most visible in the shadows so make sure to really zoom in to take a closer look at the shadows. Once I am satisfied with the noise removal in the image I will move onto my Sharpening Details to really bring back some of the lost edges due to the removal of noise. I will talk about sharpening in a future article.

The most important aspect of the noise removal in Camera Raw is that it is non destructive versus third party noise removal applications which are destructive.


Can the new Camera Raw save every image? The answer to that is no but it does do a great job on most images.
It is still critical to get the exposure right in camera and apply the basic principles of photography exposure. Can you use Camera Raw in combination with third party noise removal programs like Noise Ninja? I find that some images are completely removed of noise in Camera Raw and other images need more help.  The addition of third party applications like Noise Ninja can help an image with certain areas of noise that Camera Raw is unable to. Using both applications would ideally be your best bet in my opinion. Just like anything in photography there are many ways to achieve the same results.

Increasing Your IQ

Tuesday, February 19th, 2013

By Adrian Klein

If you are looking to increase your intelligence quotient then I will admit I am not sure how much this will help. What this may do is help you improve your overall image quality (IQ). There are the obvious answers while you are capturing the images like use low ISO settings, capture RAW files and more. What I will cover are steps that are not always standard in our thought process (mine included) or not always done in the correct order to get the best results.

These are pieces of the processing puzzle I think about when I get a print sale for a large image from an old relic on my site that probably should have been removed as my standards have risen. Most “offending” images are gone from my site today yet I am sure there are a few stragglers. When I fail to do some of what I note below as part of my initial image processing it can be much harder to do after the fact when I am preparing the file for printing (e.g. removing chromatic aberration as the last step). Now days I actually have a checklist to review each time.

There are other pieces to my processing, it’s never a standard process of do these 12 steps and your images is done. This is not my complete set yet these are main components in relation to where I try to keep them in the processing timeline. The decision of what to do early in the process or near the end is something that can impact IQ in the final result.

Top 4 – First

1. Remove Color Fringing: I saw color fringing yet it’s also known as Chromatic Aberration. This is no fun to remove at the end of processing. I have done it a couple times at the end where it can be very time consuming and tedious. Here are examples zoomed in showing with and without color fringing.


Chromatic Aberration – Before and After Fix

2. Remove Sharpening: There are those that prefer to leave the default that programs like Photoshop Adobe Camera RAW use. That was me. No I opt for no sharpening up front. Mainly I do this because it should be the last step. Additionally sensitive areas like the sky or dark areas don’t need any help getting noisy. They do a good job on their own already. Also removing the sharpening helps you understand what parts of the image might be having noise issues.

Remove RAW Sharpen - Before and After

Remove RAW Sharpen – Before and After. The image on the left with the default ACR sharpening and the image with all sharpening removed in ACR.

3. Noise Reduction: A small amount of noise does not normally have much impact or if you only create small images. Looking to go big and that noise on your monitor will be more noticeable in print. I do most up front yet will add a tad more at the end of if need be. Zoom in 100% minimum (if you are not doing this already). This is normally how you can spot the noise especially in the sky or shadows, and some of the other points in this post. If you notice it zoomed in 100% or less you will certainly notice it in a large print.

Remove Noise - Before and After Fix

Remove Noise – Before and After Fix. The grass on the left with noise and the right with it removed. Zoomed in 200%.

4. Highlights and Shadows: Doing your major work with highlights and shadows through painting or luminosity masks I try to do before working with the colors. Changing this after working through vibrance and saturation can make for a slightly different look than changing the colors and then working the highlights and shadows.

Bottom 4 – Last

1. Colors – Saturation and Vibrance: I usually do this shortly after the top four steps. At this point the image is ready to start work with what suites you’re fancy for adding color into the image. My personal preference being masks.
2. House Cleaning – Dust spots: The reason I leave this until the end of my process is because if I find during processing that I need to go back to the RAW file and pull something in (say from a sky with dust spots) then I am bringing those back to deal with again. I know you can remove these in RAW and Lightroom it’s simply my preference to wait until near the end.
3. Dodging and Burning: Any minor tweaking in highlights and shadows I wait until close to the end. If I am doing significant work with this aspect of processing then it should be earlier on with luminosity masks or the like.
4. Sharpening: This should be the very last step. The reasoning is simple. You want to sharpen the right amount based on the final output and size. How much you sharpen for a web size file vs a 20×30 inch print is significantly different. Note – your final file of which you produce desired web and print files should always remain unsharpened.

Next time you are opening a file to process maybe this will give you steps in the process to think about. Processing is a personal experience for many of us and I am sure there will be those that have thoughts that differ from mine. This is simply a moment in time of how I look at my image processing today. Like many aspects of photography it will likely change again. How about you?